The procedure of complete or partial removal of the thyroid gland is performed due to various diseases manifested by changes in its structure, hypertrophy and the formation of nodules which may be accompanied by hormonal disturbances in the body. Thyroid enlargement is called goiter. Depending on the state of the thyroid gland, we distinguish:
– nontoxic goiter – secretion of thyroid hormones is not disturbed
-hyperactive goiter – (toxic) thyroid hormones are secreted excessively
-hypoactive goiter – thyroid hormone deficiency occurs
Tumors arising in the thyroid can be benign or malignant. Cysts may also occur in the thyroid.
Surgical treatment is recommended in the case of:
– diagnosis or suspicion of thyroid cancer,
– non-toxic multinodular goiter,
– hyperactive multinodular goiter,
– reoccurrence of goiter after surgery,
– ineffective conservative treatment,
– irrespective of the thyroid disease type in the case of the goiter compressing the organs or neck and/or mediastinum.
The procedure is performer under general anesthesia. The removal of the thyroid gland is about its complete or partial removal. The extent of the surgery depends on the type of thyroid disease. The skin is cut at the base of the neck about 1.5 cm above the pit of neck of the sternum. Then, the neck muscles are cut and the thyroid gland is exposed, secreting it from the surrounding tissues. The incoming vessels are tied up, including the upper and lower superior thyroid arteries. Laryngeal nerves are made visible on both sides of the thyroid gland to avoid their intersection. Next, the surgeon carefully removes the thyroid gland. At the last stage of the operation, there is a check for bleeding. Then the muscles of the neck, subcutaneous tissue and skin are sewn. The surgeon leaves a drain that will be removed on the first or second postoperative day. The removed thyroid undergoes histopathological examination. After the result, please reported to the Hospital Register or to the surgeon within a period of 14-21 days after the procedure. Based on the result, continuation of treatment is established.